Pelagic Birding in the Straits of Singapore.

Pelagic birding in the Singapore Straits. 18 Sept 2016. Text and Photos by Dirk Tomsa. 


Cruising eastwards at the start of out Pelagic with the Singapore skyline in the distance. Photo: Gerard Francis.

On 18 September 2016, the Bird Group of the Nature Society Singapore organized its first pelagic birdwatching trip for its members. There were ten of us including the leaders Alfred Chia and Lim Kim Keang. We left Sentosa Marina just before 6 am and set course for the Singapore Straits. I had done a few pelagics in Australia before and always loved them, so I was full of anticipation when we finally cleared immigration – yes, passport clearence out at sea, a first for me – and headed out to more open water. Compared to my previous experiences in the cold waters of the Southern ocean, this tropical pelagic promised very different birds. Terns, not albatrosses or prions, would be most prominent, with up to eight different species possible including the beautiful Aleutian Tern which migrates through Singaporean waters around this time of the year. Furthermore, we were hoping to see Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel, another migratory species that routinely passes through the Singapore Straits in September. For me personally, these two were the main targets as both would be lifers for me. And, as it turned out, I would not be disappointed.   


Terns like this Greater Crested Terns will be the most prominent pelagic species encountered.

In fact, it didn’t take long at all until we saw the first storm-petrels. Navigating the waves low above the surface, several small groups of Swinhoe’s whizzed past the boat, but unfortunately none of them came really close so that it was difficult to clearly see the subtle markings on these essentially brown birds. Eventually, my binoculars captured a bird close enough to the boat to enable me making out the slightly paler, crescent-shaped wing bar. Most birds, however, kept their distance and so I felt kind of reassured that Swinhoe’s was actually the only ‘stormie’ likely to be encountered here. Identifying different species at this long range would be a huge challenge. In the end, Alfred and Kim Keang confirmed that all storm-petrels seen that day were Swinhoe’s and that the total number of birds migrating through the straits that morning must have been around 300-350. Good numbers indeed, and a valuable tick for my list.


At this time of the year, the Straits of Singapore is one of the best places to see these Swinhoe’s Storm Petrels as they migrate through the Straits. More than 320 were counted this morning. Photo: Gerard Francis.

The storm-petrels were most abundant early in the morning. As the clock approached 9 am, the little brown birds became scarcer and we turned our attention to terns. Apparently a solitary Little Tern bid farewell to our boat as we left Sentosa but I had missed it, watching the distant silhouette of a Brahminy Kite instead.


Close up view of two Great Crested Terns in non-breeding plumage at the yellow buoy.

But now out at sea, more and more terns appeared near the boat. As expected, the most numerous were the fairly common Greater Crested Terns. More than twenty of this large tern species flew past throughout the trip and we were treated to some close-up views early on when a group of six perched on a buoy. We circled the buoy a couple of times so that everyone could get a good look. For the majority on board, this was their first pelagic birdwatching trip, so seeing these large terns so close was a great experience for all.


The Lesser Crested Tern on the left and the Greater side by side for comparison. The bright orange bill of the Lesser is a good feature to tell them apart.

Getting such good views of the very similar Lesser Crested Tern took a lot longer. In fact, we had to wait until we passed the same buoy again on the way back. This time the six Greater Crested Terns shared the tight space with two Lesser Crested Terns, thereby providing an excellent opportunity to compare these two species at close range. Despite the names, the difference in size is actually not that big, but the brightly coloured bills – orange in the Lesser, yellow in the Greater – made it easy for everyone on board to tell the birds apart.

In between our two encounters with the Crested Terns, there was a prolonged period where there were no birds at all. During this intermezzo, my thoughts drifted and I struggled to stay awake as my body reminded me that I had gotten up at 4.30 am. I staved off the temptation to just close my eyes by chatting with other participants, eating some snacks or looking at the field guides Alfred and Kim Keang had kindly provided. And then, just when I was about to doze off, another bird appeared seemingly out of nowhere.


Bridled Tern with its distinctive dark upper wings and eyebrow. An uncommon winter visitor.  

A Bridled Tern emerged near the boat and was gone within seconds, but then another one appeared. And another. With their dark upper-wings and distinct eyebrow, these are among my favourite terns. We would see several others later on, but most of them remained distant specs on the horizon and unfortunately not everybody on board saw them.  


Fantastic views of the Aleutian Tern resting on a flotsam,  a well known habitat for this tern. We counted eight of these wonderful terns during the trip.

The Bridled Terns had barely disappeared out of sight when someone from the front of the boat shouted ‘bird on water’. That sounded promising for Aleutian Tern because this species is well-known for its habit to rest on flotsam. And sure enough, an Aleutian Tern it was. Undisturbed by our approaching boat the bird perched calmly on a piece of driftwood, allowing fantastic views and great photo opportunities. Soon we saw a second bird perched a bit further away. All in all, we counted eight of these wonderful terns.


An uncommon Common Tern was our last and sixth tern species for the day.

Yet, not every tern on the water was an Aleutian Tern. Thanks to the sharp eyes of our ever-watchful guides, one of the flotsam squatters was identified as a Common Tern, a species which despite its name is actually fairly uncommon in Singapore waters. This was the sixth and last tern species to go onto our list for the day. The other two possibilities, Black-naped and White-winged Tern, did not grace us with an appearance this time, but that was only a minor blemish on an otherwise thoroughly rewarding trip.   

A big thank you to Alfred and the Bird Group for organising this trip, both Alfred and Kim Keang for the guiding and Gerard Francis for the use of his photos.


12 thoughts on “Pelagic Birding in the Straits of Singapore.

  1. David Wells

    Dear Alan. Storm petrel pic: white primary shafts showing at base of outer wing = text-book way of telling Matsudaira’s from Swinhoe’s? I have not researched the point myself and others may have more on this, but something to check if you are doing more pelagic trips this season. Both could be occurring. All the best David Wells


    1. Alan OwYong Post author

      Dear David, many thanks for pointing out the wing features. Sea birds is one group that many of us here are not familiar with including myself. It is great that others like yourself took the trouble to help out. Will also alert the next group going out in October. I will forward your comment to Dirk Tomsa and also the records committee to take a look into this. Also will check on other photos of the Storm Petrels. Best Regards Alan.


  2. Colin Poole

    Hi David and Alan
    This birds looks typical of the worn adults we see off Singapore in the Sept-Nov period, there’s a great variability in this feature and despite what the literature says it is not, at that time of year, a good feature for separation from Matsudaira’s. Look at the autumn images on Con Foley’s web site (vs the fresh spring birds on there)
    The large white crescent at the base of the primary shafts appears to be caused by extensive wear of the greater primary coverts, and hence it is not visible on fresh spring birds. I have never knowingly seen a bird of the year in Singapore waters in autumn, or a photo of one (which raises other questions) but would guess they have the much reduced white primary-base crescent as the spring adults do, I have also never seen a bird with such extensive white crescents in the spring.
    Until we started doing Singapore pelagics there was little or no experience of Swinhoe’s in such worn adult plumage and certainly no photographs, hence the misunderstanding in the literature. Bob Flood’s Multimedia ID Guide to North Atlantic Seabirds – Storm-petrels and Bulwer’s Petrel (p 111) is the only publication I’ve seen that covers this (with photos from SIngapore). I have no personal experience of Matsudaira’s but from photographs and what others have told me it looks a different bird in flight, longer winged and tailed. I have certainly never seen a bird off Singapore which didn’t fit the size and appearance of Swinhoe’s and I’ve looked hard at a lot of birds! My guess is that Matsudaira’s moves into the Southern Indian Ocean further east and doesn’t routinely occur in the Singapore Strait, or perhaps even the South China Sea?


    1. Alan OwYong Post author

      Hi Colin, Trust things are fine with you. Many thanks for the information on the different plumage of the Autumn and Spring SSPs, the references from other guides and personal observations of SSPs in Singapore. I was told by Boas Emmanuel that they migrate through at Jakarta Bay?


      1. Colin Poole

        Hi Alan
        Are there any photos from Jakarta Bay? Nick Brickle once showed me a photo he’d taken in the Java Sumatra Straits of a bird he’d identified as Matsudaira’s that looked very good. But I thought I remember him telling me that Swinhoe’s occurred regularly in Jakarta Bay, so it would be really interesting and informative if both species were present?


  3. Russell Boyman

    very excited about Birding n Singapore as I move there in a few weeks. A pelagic is high on my list- please feel free to send me details of any organized trips like this one- at
    Im a Uk birder with a 3800 world list and Aleutian and bridled terns would be lifers for me !


    1. Alan OwYong Post author

      Dear Russell Welcome to Singapore. The Bird Group organised these pelagic trips in May and Sept for members of the Nature Society (Singapore). Membership is $40 a year. Besides these trips we also conduct two bird walks every month.


      1. Russell Boyman

        Thanks Alan Ill be sure to join once I have a local bank account !

        Is there a list of their activities somewhere ?


  4. margok7

    Hello We are keen Birdos and last campaign was to the cloud forests of Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. We are planning a visit in March 2019 and would value some directions on areas that would provide fruitful bird watching. In the immediate, I chanced upon your blog by seeking pelagic birds off Uluwatu … kindly assist with location information and sightings off the cliffs for our forthcoming trip next month (October). Thank you



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