Monthly Archives: December 2021

Singapore Bird Report – October 2021

by Geoff Lim, Isabelle Lee,
& Tan Gim Cheong (ed.)

This month, we received reports of five spectacular finds: three first records in the form of an Ashy-headed Green Pigeon, a Spotted Flycatcher and a Tree Pipit, a second record Fairy Pitta, and a Mangrove Whistler, a bird seldom encountered on the main Singapore island.

1, AHGP, Art Toh, 101021, crop

Ashy-headed Green Pigeon by Art Toh, taken on 10 October 2021 at Dillenia Hut.

Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR)

The first ever record of an Ashy-headed Green Pigeon, Treron phayrei, was reported on 9 Oct 2021 by Yip Jen Wei, who found the bird near Dillenia Hut. The bird was subsequently seen with Pink-necked Green Pigeon, Treron vernans, and fed on the fruiting Vitek pinnata and Leea indica growing on the banks of the stream and was last seen on 11 Oct 2021. Opinion is divided between whether the pigeon was an escapee or a wild bird, as the species is not found beyond Thailand and is known to be frequently trapped in Indochina. Other species seen within the core CCNR included a Short-tailed Babbler, Pellorneum malaccense, seen on 3 Oct 2021 by Max Khoo, a rare Black-naped Monarch, Hypothymis azurea, on 12 Oct 2021 by Oliver Tan, and three Cream-vented Bulbul, Pycnonotus simplex, spotted on 14 Oct 2021 by Oliver Tan.

2, Fairy Pitta, Art Toh, 311021

Fairy Pitta by Art Toh, taken on 31 October 2021 at Hindhede Nature Park.

Singapore’s second record of the Fairy Pitta, Pitta nympha, was spotted on the second last day of the month, 30 Oct 2021 by Vincent Lao at Hindhede Nature Park. Vincent was looking for a tree shrew when he spotted the bird in the dark understorey. Other species spotted included a Laced Woodpecker, Picus vittatus, spotted on 19 Oct 2021 by Jonathan Lin, an Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher, Ceyx erithaca, on 20 Oct 2021 by John Ascher and a Changeable Hawk-Eagle, Nisaetus cirrhatus, on 21 Oct 2021, by Vinokumar Saranathan.

At Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, a Yellow-vented Flowerpecker Dicaeum chrysorrheum was photographed by Francis Yap on 26 Oct 2021, and a Chestnut-bellied Malkoha, Phaenicophaeus sumatranus, was seen on 28 Oct 2021 by Jeff Tan.

Visitors to Dairy Farm Nature Park reported seeing a variety of resident and migratory forest species. Notably, a Black-crested Bulbul, Pycnonotus flaviventris, was spotted on 8 Oct 2021 by Dillen Ng, and a Ferruginous Flycatcher, Muscicapa ferruginea, was seen on 10 Oct 2021 by Jonathan Lin. On 17 Oct 2021, a Red-crowned Barbet, Megalaima rafflesii, an Abbott’s Babbler, Malacocincla abbotti, and a Blue-rumped Parrot, Psittinus cyanurus, were seen by Fadzrun A., while an Asian Red-eyed Bulbul, Pycnonotus brunneus, was seen by Darren Leow. On the same day, a pair of Blue-winged Leafbird, Chloropsis cochinchinensis, was seen by Lukasz Wojciech. The next day on 18 Oct 2021, a Brown Hawk-Owl, Ninox scutulata, and a Siberian Blue Robin, Larvivora cyane, were seen by Jon Garcia.

Further away, a Brown-streaked Flycatcher, Muscicapa williamsoni, was spotted on 8 Oct 2021 at the Singapore Quarry by John Ascher, while a Barred Eagle-Owl, Bubo sumatranus, was seen on 16 Oct 2021 by Lua Wai Heng in the woods near Jalan Asas.

YVFP, 291021, BT hilltop, Herman Phua

Yellow-vented Flowerpecker by Herman Phua, taken on 29 October 2021 at Bukit Timah hill top.

Singapore Botanic Gardens

Several regular migratory species were reported by visitors on 19 Oct 2021. These included a Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, (Bear Jia), a Crow-billed Drongo, Dicrurus annectans, (Li Si Tay), a Blyth’s Paradise Flycatcher, Terpsiphone affinis, (Hamad Azam), an Amur Paradise Flycatcher, Terpsiphone incei, (Bear Jia) and an Eastern Crowned Warbler, Phylloscopus coronatus, (Vinokumar Saranathan). On 24 Oct 2021, Ted Kiku photographed a Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus preying on a Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex.

Residents include a pair of Asian Palm Swift, Cypsiurus balasiensis, seen on 14 Oct 2021 (Joshua Chong), a House Swift, Apus nipalensis, spotted on 18 Oct 2021 (Chen Boon Chong), eight Lesser Whistling Duck, Dendrocygna javanica, seen on 19 Oct 2021 (Joshua Chong), a solitary Black-crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, spotted on 19 Oct 2021 (Bear Jia), a Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus ichthyaetus, seen on 19 Oct 2021 (Tuck Loong Kwok) and a pair of Coconut Lorikeet, Trichoglossus haematodus, seen on the same day (Joshua Chong).

Northern Singapore

The Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve (SBWR) yielded a number of waders, such as a solitary Terek Sandpiper, Xenus cinereus, on 10 Oct 2021 (Lukasz Wojciech), 150 Pacific Golden Plover, Pluvialis fulva and 130 Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus, as well as 30 Common Redshank, Tringa totanus, on 23 Oct 2021 (Lim Kim Chuah). Four Copper-throated Sunbird, Leptocoma calcostetha, were spotted that 17 Oct 2021 by Charles Bokman, while a Drongo Cuckoo, Surniculus lugubris, was seen on7 Oct 2021 (Evelyn Lee), and four Lesser Adjutant, Leptoptilos javanicus, were counted seven days later on 14 Oct 2021 by young Kaeden Sim.

Over at Neo Tiew Harvest Lane, a lurking Cinnamon Bittern, Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, was spotted on 9 Oct 2021 (Fadzrun A), a Red Turtle Dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica, 17 Oct 2021, was seen at Kranji Marsh (Kaeden Sim).

Punggol Park was fruitful with a Forest Wagtail, Dendronanthus indicus, a Yellow-rumped Flycatcher, Ficedula zanthopygia, and three Pied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula bicolor, on 20 Oct 2021 by Kwok Tuck Loong.

Eastern Singapore

Visitors to Pulau Ubin reported seeing two Grey Plover, Pluvialis squatarola, on 10 Oct 2021 at Chek Jawa (YK Han), two White-rumped Shama, Copsychus malabaricus, on 18 Oct 2021 (John Chin), and three Blue-winged Pitta, Pitta moluccensis on 28 Oct 2021 (Lim Yu Jun). Over at the canal along Changi Business Park, a single Green Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aenea, was seen on 19 Oct 2021 (Vish M), as was a Brown Shrike, Lanius cristatus, and a pair of Large-billed Crow, Corvus macrorhynchos, on 21 Oct 2021 (Vish M). Other sightings in the east include five White-shouldered Starling, Sturnia sinensis, one Dark-sided Flycatcher, Muscicapa sibirica, and one Black-browed Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, on 11 Oct 2021 at Tampines Eco Green (Kwok Tuck Loong), and a pair of Spotted Wood Owl, Strix seloputo, on 20 Oct 2021 along Changi Coast Road (Tay Li Si).

Southern Singapore

3, MW, Karen Chiew, 091021

Mangrove Whistler by Karen Chiew, taken on 9 October 2021 at Berlayer Creek.

Two of the five major discoveries for October 2021 were made in southern Singapore. A single Mangrove Whistler, Pachycephala cinerea, was found lurking in the mangroves along Tanjong Berlayer Creek on 9 Oct 2021 by Karen Chiew, while a Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa striata, the first for Singapore, was discovered on 15 Oct 2021 at Kent Ridge Park by Alex Kang.

4, Spotted FC, Geoff, 231021

Spotted Flycatcher by Geoff Lim, taken on 23 October 2021 at Kent Ridge Park.

Early birds seen in the south were a Large Hawk-Cuckoo, Hierococcyx sparverioides, seen on 1 Oct 2021 by the indefatigable Ramesh T. at Dover Road, while a Blue Rock Thrush, Monticola soltarius, was seen on 5 Oct 2021 at the Pinnacle@Duxton by the young and talented Kaeden Sim.

Sightings from the Southern Ridges included thirty Pacific Swift, Apus pacificus, on 18 Oct 2021 along Henderson Waves by Oliver Tan, one Chinese Sparrowhawk, Accipiter soloensis, and one Japanese Sparrowhawk, Accipiter gularis, on 19 Oct 2021 at Telok Blangah Hill Park by Alan OwYong, and a Crested Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela, and one Crested Goshawk, Accipiter trivirgatus, on 20 Oct 2021 at  Kent Ridge Park by Joshua Chong.  Residents included a pair of Van Hasselt’s Sunbird, Leptocoma brasiliana, on 17 Oct 2021 at Mount Faber Park, as reported by Raghav Narayanswamy, and a single White-rumped Munia, Lonchura striata, seen on 23 Oct 2021 at Telok Blangah Hill Park by Tay Kian Guan.

The usual plovers were present at Marina East – three Kentish Plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, one White-faced Plover, Charadrius dealbatus, on 18 Oct 2021 as seen by Kwok Tuck Loong, and four Malaysian Plover, Charadrius peronii, spotted on 19 Oct 2021 by Kaeden Sim. Also seen were seven White-winged Tern, Chlidonias leucopterus, on 7 Oct 2021 by Sylvester Goh and one Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybrida, on 18 Oct 2021 by Kwok Tuck Loong.

Island-hoppers contributed with reports of six House Sparrow, Passer domesticus, on 6 Oct 2021 from Sakra Road, Jurong Island (Martin Kennewell), two Eastern Cattle Egret, Bubulcus coromandus, two Oriental Pratincole, Glareola maldivarum, and one Golden-bellied Gerygone, Gerygone sulphurea, on 19 Oct 2021 on Kusu Island (Tan Gim Cheong) and one Chinese Hwamei, Garrulax canorus, on 27 Oct 2021 on Sentosa Island (Max Khoo).

Western Singapore

6, Tree Pipit, LKS, 311021

Tree Pipit by Lim Kim Seng, taken on 31 October 2021 at Ulu Pandan-Clementi Rd junction.

The fifth serendipitous find for the month was a single Tree Pipit, Anthus trivialis, another first for Singapore, found on 23 Oct 2021 in a patch of grass at the Ulu Pandan-Clementi Road junction by Soo Kok Choong. On a previous day, three Buffy Fish Owl, Ketupa ketupu, were seen near the Pine Grove estate on 19 Oct 2021 by Julie Edgley.

Visitors to the monsoon canal along Lim Chu Kang Lane 3 reported seeing a Greater Painted-Snipe, Rostratula benghalensis, on 17 Oct 2021 (Martin Kennewell), one Blue-eared Kingfisher, Alcedo meninting, and two Red Avadavat, Amandava amandava, on 18 Oct 2021 (Raghav Narayanswamy), and nine Little Ringed Plover, Charadrius dubius, and ten Wood Sandpiper, Tringa glareola, one  Pallas’s Grasshopper Warbler, Locustella certhiola, one Eastern Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla tschutschensis, and one Grey Wagtail, Motacilla cinerea, on 19 Oct 2021 (Kaeden Sim).

Tuas South, which is the western-most end of Singapore, yielded a mix of usual and spectacular migrants. The reclaimed land off Tuas South Avenue 16 had an Oriental Plover, Charadrius veredus, one Red-necked Stint, Calidris ruficollis, and a pair of Long-toed Stint, Calidris subminuta, seen on 6 Oct 2021 (Martin Kennewell). The area also yielded a Chestnut-winged Cuckoo, Clamator coromandus, a Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Hierococcyx nisicolor, and a Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher, Cyornis brunneatus, on 19 Oct 2021 (Raghav Narayanswamy).

This report is compiled/written by Geoff Lim and Isabelle Lee and edited by Tan Gim Cheong. We are grateful for the birders and photographers whose postings in various Facebook birding pages, bird forums, individual reports and extracts from eBird make up this report. This compilation is not a complete list of birds recorded for the month and not all the records were verified.

Many thanks to Art Toh, Herman Phua, Karen Chiew, Geoff Lim & Lim Kim Seng for allowing us to use their photographs.

37th Singapore Bird Race (2021) – Results

logo capture 2

The theme for the 37th Singapore Bird Race was migratory raptors. The race was held from 11-12 December 2021 and attracted 230 participants, including 45 youths aged 18 years and below. Apart from a Guest Team comprising Minister Desmond Lee and Mr. Lim Kim Chuah, teams were spread across six categories – Marathon (24-hr), Sprint, Photographer, Novice, Family and Youth.

Due to COVID-19 restrictions when registration was opened, the team size was limited to two members. This was relaxed for the Family category when the allowed size for social groups was increased. All reporting of bird observations were done remotely via eBird.

During the closing webinar to announce the results, Minister Desmond Lee remarked that “Events like the Bird Race play a key part in our efforts to strengthen the conservation of our natural heritage” and added that Singapore is an important stopover for migratory shorebirds along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, as well as for raptors such as the Oriental Honey Buzzard and the Black Baza.

All the champion teams in each category recorded more than 60 species of birds in a span of as little as four and a half hours, which is really good. In fact, the top three teams in the Novice category are well placed to compete in the Sprint category next year, welcome! Every single species count and some placings were separated by just one species. All in a very good performance by all the teams.

CategoryNumber of Teams

Marathon Category

The 24-hour Marathon category was marked by rain on day one, but the weather held on day two. The Little Terns (Lim Kim Keang & Tai Ping Ling) recorded 94 species to secure the top position. Despite an unexpected delay in submission of their checklist, the Drongoes (Lau Jia Sheng & Ang Bao Jun) remained well ahead of the next team, coming in second with 93 species. Raptors on VTL (Liu Xinlu & Li Jiayu) recorded 72 species to clinch the third place. Well done all the marathon birders despite the weather.

Sprint Category

In the 5-hour Sprint category, F2.0 (Fitri Adnan & Mohamad Fadzrun) recorded an impressive 81 species to claim the top position. Frank Bear (Jia Beier & Chen Zhongshuo) came in second with 71 species. The Pratincoles (Veronica Foo & Henrietta Woo) successfully defended their third place with 61 species. Great work.

Photographer Category

The Singapore Stringers (Dillen Ng & Max Khoo) topped the Photographer category by stringing 70 species on camera. Meaningful Watching (Leung Wei Kee & Mithilesh Mishra) came in second with 61 species. Close behind them were ID Please (Goh Cheng Teng & Lester Tan) with 60 species photographed. Nice work.

Novice Category

In the Novice category, Bird Blindness (Wong Ee Ling & Athyna Al-Idid) had a sharp eye for the birds and recorded a cool 67 species to come in first. It was a close fight for the next two places with just one species difference between the teams. Birdingding (Shuna Maekawa & Chan Yi Qian) took the second place with 63 species, while Washi (Lim Yam Lim & Lim Qian Xun) was right behind with 62 species. Fantastic.

In view of the large number of teams in the Novice category, four Consolation prizes were awarded. The Consolation prizes goes to Avianators (57 species), PB&J (57 species), PS&N (56 species) and Bulbulsaur (54 species).

Family Category

In the Family category, Nuggets (Aileen Lee & Kaeden Sim) came in first with 76 species. The Incredibirds (Joshua Chong, Kim Quek & Samuel Chong) took the second place with 69 species. Melody (Wong Lian Han & Wong Yun Ning Melody) was next in line with 52 species. Incredible results.

Youth Category

The Unlarky Birders (Jeff Tan & Lu Kiat) were very lucky with the birds, recording 69 species, coming in tops. The Youngwings (Benjamin Ong & Kinnon Tan) came in second with 50 species. Team SCduoeggs (Sng Yi Xin & B K Preethi) defended their third place with 40 species. Awesome.

Race Highlights

More than 180 species of birds were recorded during the bird race, including 18 species of raptors, or birds of prey. Eight of these were migrant raptors and all three raptor species featured on the bird race logo – the Black Baza, Oriental Honey Buzzard and Japanese Sparrowhawk were recorded. The rare Amur Falcon was still wintering at Punggol, and a Grey-faced Buzzard decided to stay at Telok Blangah Hill despite its buddies being transient passage migrants. The Black Kite at Turut Track was a good find. The remaining two migrant raptors recorded were the Jerdons’ Baza at Coney Island, and the Western Osprey.

Apart from the raptors, a Sand Martin was recorded at the Neo Tiew Harvest Lane, a Little Grebe at Marina East, an Oriental Pratincole at Turut Track, the shy Greater Coucal at Lim Chu Kang Lane 3, a Savanna Nightjar at Lorong Halus Wetlands, and at Jurong Lake Gardens, the Hodgson’s Hawk-Cuckoo, Ruddy-breasted Crake, and the secretive Barred Buttonquail.

Black Baza 3, crop

The Black Baza, featured on this year’s logo, was spotted by more than 10 teams. 

Crested Honey Buzzard 1, pale morph, DSC_2315, crop

The Oriental Honey Buzzard, featured on this year’s logo, was spotted by more than 50 teams. 

Japanese Sparrowhawk 3, juvenile 1, crop

The Japanese Sparrowhawk, featured on this year’s logo, was spotted by more than 10 teams. 


We are privileged to have Mapletree Investments as our main sponsor for the third consecutive year. It is through the generous support of Mapletree that the race could be conducted at this scale, and enable more youths to participate. This is especially important as the young will inherit Singapore’s natural heritage.

Thanks to Mr Desmond Lee, Minister for National Development, for gracing the event as the Guest-of-Honour. Thanks also to Mr Edmund Cheng, Chairman of Mapletree Investments; Mr Wan Kwong Weng, Group Chief Corporate Officer for Mapletree; Dr Shawn Lum, President of NSS; and Mr Vinayagan Dharmarajah, Regional Director (Asia), Birdlife International, for their time at the closing webinar.

Thanks also to other event partners and sponsors – Birdlife International, NParks, eBird, Pansing, John Beaufoy Publishing and Playlogue Creations. Thanks to the Organising Committee and all volunteers who helped in organising the race. Also, a big thank you to all the participants for taking part in this year’s bird race. See you next year!

Bird Race Results in Table Form

PositionMarathon CategorySpecies
1Little Terns94
3Raptors on VTL72
PositionSprint CategorySpecies
2Frank Bear71
PositionPhotographer CategorySpecies
1Singapore Stringers70
2Meaningful Watching61
3ID Please60
PositionNovice CategorySpecies
1Bird Blindness67
PositionFamily CategorySpecies
2The Incredibirds69
PositionYouth CategorySpecies
1Unlarky Birders69
2The Youngwings50

Singapore Raptor Report – November 2021

Long-eared Owl, 201121, MED, Shiu Ling FBBS, crop

Long-eared Owl, a first for Singapore, harassed by crows, at Marina East, 20 Nov 2021, by Choo Shiu Ling

Summary for migrant species:

It’s another amazing November, with 20 migrant raptor species recorded (compared with 18 last year). Most astonishing was Singapore’s first record of the Long-eared Owl Asio Otus, an individual harassed by crows at Marina East on the 20th, well captured on camera by Choo Shiu Ling. The only Northern Boobook Ninox japonica was unfortunately found dead at Ghim Moh on the 1st. An Oriental Scops Owl Otus sunia appeared on the kitchen floor of a resident on the 15th; and on the 17th, a rufous morph was found concussed on the ground, in front of some shops at Jurong Street 52 where it was placed on a tree as it recovered and subsequently flew into the dense foliage higher up a tree.

The rarity for diurnal raptors is no doubt the Amur Falcon Falco amurensis that showed well at Lorong Halus Wetlands on the 26th, found by Lim Yu Jun and Tan Kian Hoe, hunting and feeding on the wing for prolonged periods over the wetlands. It continued to frequent the same area everyday for the rest of the month, resting on an apartment block undergoing construction, in between its feeding flights (it is still around as of this report).

Amur Falcon, 271121, Halus, Chen Boon Chong

Amur Falcon, at Lorong Halus Wetlands, 27 Nov 2021, by Chen Boon Chong

The one and only Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus, a pale morph, was photographed by Zacc HD and others at Mount Faber on the 6th (Zacc also photographed the only Booted Eagle, a dark morph, last November). Only one Common Buzzard Buteo buteo so far this season, a juvenile pale morph, was recorded on the 6th at Henderson Waves. One Rufous-bellied Eagle Lophotriorchis kienerii was recorded at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and its vicinity on the 5th, 17th and 20th.

Only two Pied Harriers Circus melanoleucos were recorded, a juvenile at Nanyang Crescent on the 5th, and a female at Henderson Waves on the 17th.

Three Common Kestrels Falco tinnunculus were recorded, one on the 1st, perched on a low branch at Canterbury Road, another on the 6th at Henderson Waves / Mount Faber, and the last on the 14th at Mount Faber. Also three in number were the Black Kites Milvus migrans, one on the 11th at Telok Blangah Hill Park (TBHP) / Mount Faber, one on the 19th at Bukit Timah hill, and the third at TBHP on the 22nd.

All four Greater Spotted Eagles Clanga clanga recorded were juveniles. One was photographed from Skyville@Dawson on the 2nd; another at Mount Faber on the 9th, gliding straight through the site without flapping nor turning; one at Tuas on the 13th, harassed by a juvenile White-bellied Sea Eagle, and another at Henderson Waves on the 21st.

JB, 221121, DFNP, Dave Koh

Jerdon’s Baza, at Dairy Farm Nature Park, 22 Nov 2021, by Dave Koh

Juveniles made up the majority of the seven Eastern Marsh Harriers Circus spilonotus recorded. One was at Mount Faber on the 5th; another at Lorong Halus Wetlands on the 6th; the only male at Henderson Waves on the 6th; singles at Mount Faber on the 16th, Bukit Timah hill top on the 19th, Jurong Lake Gardens on the 20th, and East Coast Park on the 25th.

The first Jerdon’s Baza Aviceda jerdoni was recorded at the southern ridges from TBHP to Henderson Waves to Mount Faber, with a max of five at Mount Faber. Subsequently, they were recorded at Dairy Farm Nature Park, Bukit Timah hill top, Lorong Halus Wetlands, and Coney Island where three birds seem to be wintering. Altogether, 16 of these charismatic raptors were recorded.

Eighteen Grey-faced Buzzards Butastur indicus were recorded, spanning from the 1st to the 28th, mostly along the southern ridges to Marina Bay belt, with one outlier at Lorong Halus Wetlands on the 27th. All of them appear to be on passage migration. Four Western Ospreys Pandion haliaetus were recorded along the northern coast, and sixteen Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus throughout, including site faithfuls at Bedok South, Sembawang and Jurong West.


Grey-faced Buzzard, juvenile, at Telok Blangah Hill Park, 26 Nov 2021, by Tan Gim Cheong

Of the thirty four Chinese Sparrowhawks Accipiter soloensis recorded, the site faithful adult female at Ang Mo Kio which arrived last month continued to be present. Most of the 175 Japanese Sparrowhawks Accipiter gularis were recorded migrating over the southern ridges, with 15 birds being the highest in a day, on the 4th.

We had 236 Black Bazas Aviceda leuphotes this month, with 40 birds over Mount Faber on the 11th, and 30 birds on the 16th. For the 819 Oriental Honey Buzzards Pernis ptilorhyncus, a day high of 71 birds was recorded at Tuas on the 4th, with another 56 birds on the 10th, and 57 birds on the 16th at Mount Faber.

GHFE, posted 301121, Wong Sangmen

Grey-headed Fish Eagle, juvenile, at Potong Pasir, 30 Nov 2021, by Wong Sangmen

Highlights for sedentary species:

There were five Crested Serpent Eagles Spilornis cheela, three on Pulau Ubin on the 5th, one at Kranji Marshes on the 21st and another at the southern ridges on various dates. Only one torquatus Oriental Honey Buzzard was recorded, at Lock Road on the 28th.

The other diurnal resident raptors recorded included the Black-winged Kite, Changeable Hawk-Eagle, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Crested Goshawk and the common Brahminy Kite and White-bellied Sea Eagle. An adult Brahminy Kite attacked a Hodgson’s Hawk Cuckoo at Pebble bay on the 15th, and the pair of Grey-headed Fish Eagles at Little Guilin may be starting to use their nest again.

For the nocturnal residents, the Eastern Barn Owl Tyto javanica was recorded at Hotel G near Bugis on the 6th, and at Bishan Street 12 on the 13th mobbed by crows. The pair of Buffy Fish Owls Ketupa ketupu at Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve is raising a chick and there were three Spotted Wood Owls Strix seloputo at the Botanic Gardens on the 8th and at Mandai on the 17th, both suggestive of adults with a young owl.

Table 1

Many thanks to everyone who had reported their sightings in one way or another, and especially to Choo Shiu Ling, Chen Boon Chong, Dave Koh, and Wong Sangmen for the use of their photos.

For a pdf version with more details please click Singapore Raptor Report – November 2021