Monthly Archives: July 2021

Tweeddale morph? Origins of the name for a uniquely plumaged Oriental Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhyncus)

stray feathers jou 10 1887 hume_0544

19th century painting of “Pernis tweeddalii” by J. G. Keulemans

This post was triggered by an avid birder who asked the above question.

In the late 19th century, an Oriental Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus with an (until then) never seen before blackish-and-white plumage was collected in the southeast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This specimen was described by British ornithologist Arthur Hay in 1877, under Pernis ptilorhyncus, apparently hesitating to separate it from the very variable Oriental Honey Buzzard.

Subsequently, another two specimens of similar plumage were collected, and the distinct plumage of these birds led ornithologists to treat them as a new species of Honey Buzzard. In 1880, this new species was christened Pernis tweeddalii, in honour of Arthur Hay, who was also known as Lord Tweeddale.

Along the way, it was lumped back into Oriental Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus as it breeds with the normal brownish-plumaged OHBs resident in the tropics. Therein lies the origin of the name “Tweeddale morph” of the torquatus subspecies of the OHB.  

“Bubblegum-blowing” by tiny parrot – an apparently undescribed courtship display of the male Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot.


Male Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot (right) “blows bubblegum” (a glob of regurgitated food) in a courtship display to show the female (left) that he is well able to provide food for the family. Animated image by Tan Gim Cheong.

Whampoa, Singapore – a pair of tiny Blue-crowned Hanging Parrots Loriculus galgulus (12-14 cm) flew in to an old tree which had a hole in its trunk. The male flew down from the tree top first, urging the female to come down to check out the tree hole which he had found.

When the female came down to check out the tree hole, the male did something amazing – it started to blow a yellow “bubblegum”, suck it back and blow again, to impress the female. The “bubblegum” is actually a glob of regurgitated food (which is used to feed the chicks). It seems that this display has not been documented before, and is probably part of the male’s courtship ritual to show the female that he is able to provide food for the family.

Unfortunately for this pair, the tree hole was already taken by another pair of hanging parrots, so they both flew off after a while. Good luck finding another tree hole to make a nest, bubblegum blower!

– observed on 1 March 2021

The first sighting of a juvenile Blue-winged Pitta on mainland Singapore.

By Joseph Lim.

On the morning of 16 July this year, I went hiking to the Central Catchment Forest, Mandai Track 15 to look for the Sambar deer, a former native but probably escapees from the zoo. I started the hike at 7.40 am and shortly reached a stream where sightings of the deer had been reported. I tread slowly and quietly anticipating the deer to appear anytime. Suddenly, I saw some small movements at the bare dark patches of the bushes about 5 meters away.

Surprised to see that it was a juvenile Blue-winged Pitta, a first for mainland Singapore.

It was a small bird and from the size and shape I could see that it was a pitta even though it was dark and shaded at 8 am in the morning. As I got nearer I could see it “hopping” around just like a pitta. Upon seeing me coming, the pitta jumped up and perched on a low branch, instead of getting skittish and flee. At one point the pitta turned and looked straight at me in absolute silence. From my photos, I can see that it was a juvenile Blue-winged Pitta, Pitta moluccensis, with duller plumage and gape. On checking with my friends I was told that this is the first mainland record of a juvenile Blue-winged Pitta. The previous sighting of a fledged juvenile was at Pulau Ubin also around July in 2016 where its nest was discovered ( See reference).

The gape, duller and less defined plumage of the juvenile Blue-winged Pitta

I tried to move in for a closer shot and to avoid the many mountain bikers coming through as this was a shared track at this spot. Unfortunately a biker went by fairly fast and spooked the bird. It quickly hopped and flew further into the bushes.

I wandered around the vicinity to look for it. Then I heard the calls of a Blue-winged Pitta coming from a forest patch about 20 meters away. It turned out to be another pitta, a bigger adult with brighter plumage and clear define plumage perched on a small tree, 3 meters from the ground.

The adult Blue-winged Pitta calling loudly from a small tree.

This adult Blue-winged Pitta was calling loudly and regularly  throughout my observations. It remained perched for about 3 minutes and flew deeper into the forests when I approached it for closer shots. I can only assumed that this is the parent bird.

Both the adult and the juvenile could not be located and was not seen again.

Reference :

1.‘First documented records of the Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis breeding in Singapore, BING WEN LOW, ALFRED CHIA, GIM CHEONG TAN, WEE JIN YAP & KIM KEANG LIM



     A. F. S. L. Lok1*, K. T. N. Khor2 , K. C. Lim3 and R. Subaraj4


Breeding ecology of the Black-thighed Falconets in Perak, Malaysia.

By Khoo Siew Yoong

The recent sightings of the Black-thighed Falconet, Microhierax fringillarius, in Singapore after 30 years, created considerable interest of this long-lost former resident there. This seems to be a good time to share some observations of their breeding behavior in this blog with you.

A successful brood of four juveniles

I have been studying the nesting of this falconet around the limestone hills at my backyard in Ipoh since 2005.  

A female “helper” tearing the innards of a bird to feed the chicks.

I followed a particular super productive pair full time from 2007 till present. They renewed their courtship around November to March every year, successfully brooding 3-6 chicks each year with a bumper brood of 6 chicks in 2018. In a 9 year period, between 2011 and 2019, they successfully raise at least 30 chicks.

Courtship of the studied pair. Note the size difference between the male and female.

One interesting aspect I discovered during the study was the “outsider” breeding rendered by helper adults in incubating the eggs, feeding and looking after the chicks. All of them, the parents, the helpers and the chicks roost in the same nest hole in the cliff side. Some years back, I took my Singapore birding friend Alan OwYong and his wife to check on the nesting. They were amazed to count a total of 10 of them flying back cramming into one nest hole to roost!

The nest hole inside the side of the limestone cliffs is perfect for the whole family.
A 3 month old falconet already acquired adult plumage.

Breeding – Incubation: 3-3.5 weeks. Fledging: 2.5-3 weeks. Post fledgling: 1-7,5 months.

Diet – Bat & House swift (caught on the fly), house gecko, bee, dragonfly, butterfly, moth and small birds. Occasionally small rat. Collected more than 60 pellets during one nesting period for Prof, Puan at University Putra Malaysia for analysis by his undergrad students.

Some of the pellet droppings for analysis
Belly and ThighLight rufousSlight darker rufousLight rufous
ThroatWhite/Light rufousLight to darker rufousWhite/beige
Ear StripeWhiteWhiteRufous
Table 1. Field features of the males, females and juveniles.
Family photo of parents, young and helper showing the different plumages.

I hope that more falconets will expand beyond Johor down to Singapore and establish a breeding colony there.


In correspondence with advice from David Wells and Alan Kemp.

Research expedition with the British Broadcasting Corporation on the Black – thighed Falconet (Microhierax Fringillarins – smallest eagle in the world). 2013.

“Strange Castaways” in the Wonders of the Monsoon Series. British Broadcasting Corporation. Broadcast in 2014.  

Scientific presentation on the Black- thighed Falconet (smallest eagle in the world) at the Kasetsart University – Raptor rehabilitation Unit, Chatuchak, Bangkok. 2017

Fledging Fledgling in Bird Ecology Study Group (28 Jan. 2013). Raptors: Black-thighed Falconette in Bird Ecology Study Group (5 Sept. 2009). Black-thighed Falconet: Mating and nesting rituals in Suara Enggang (29 June 07). Co- authored with K C Tsang. 

Singapore Raptor Report, Late Spring Migration, April-June 2021

CSH, f, 260621, Fort Siloso Sentosa, Jared Tan, pic

Chinese Sparrowhawk, Sentosa, at an unusually late date – 26 June 2021, by Jared Tan


Six migrant raptor species were recorded during this period compared with four in most other years. A Chinese Sparrowhawk Accipiter soloensis photographed by Jared Tan at Sentosa on 25th June came as a huge surprise, as it should have been at its breeding grounds now, and this individual is unseasonally late. The three other records for this species were on 1st April at Telok Blangah Hill Park, 2nd April at Henderson Waves (3 birds), and 9th April at Dairy Farm Nature Park.

The only record for the Black Baza Aviceda leuphotes was a flock of 25 at Henderson Waves on 2nd April, recorded by Zac C. In some years, this species is not recorded from April onwards for spring migration.

The twelve Oriental Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus on 2nd April – eight at Henderson Waves and four at Pinnacle@Duxton – might have been the last migrants to head north for the breeding grounds. There were another 13 records in April, 12 in May and 9 in June, and where photos were available, were all immatures, which would be over-summering here.

Fifty four Japanese Sparrowhawks Accipiter gularis were recorded between 1st to 19th April, a high number compared with only five last April. Three Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus were recorded, one adult at Bangkit Road on 18th April, one at Chek Jawa on 25th April, and a juvenile at Sembawang from 18th April to 3rd May. Small numbers of Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus were also recorded between April to June.

Black-thighed Falconet, 300521, Goldhill, Art Toh, same

Black-thighed Falconet, practicing its habit of perching at the top of a bare branch, Goldhill Avenue, 30 May 2021, by Art Toh

Sedentary Raptors

The biggest surprise came in the form of a tiny Black-thighed Falconet Microhierax fringillarius photographed by Art Toh at Goldhill Avenue on 30th May, doing what the species like to do – perching on the top of a bare branch. Unfortunately, it did not stay long. Apart from the juvenile at Yishun in February this year, the last confirmed record for this species was more than 30 years ago, amazing.

The next great find was the first breeding record of the Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela, for which a fresh juvenile was photographed by Tan YinLing on 25th May at Goldhill Avenue. For the next two weeks it appeared on and off alone, and it was only on 8th June that lucky Koh Lian Heng managed to see an adult catching a skink and then passing it to the juvenile before flying off, leaving the juvenile to feed by itself, showing that it had recently fledged and was still dependent on its parents. On 10th June, Zacc HD had the good fortune of seeing the adult serpent eagle holding a snake, and the juvenile flew to the same perch, no doubt to feed on the prey. Other records of the serpent eagle came from Pulau Ubin, on 7th and 10th April, and a sub-adult at Upper Peirce Reservoir on 1st June.

CSE juv, 220621, Goldhill, TGC

Crested Serpent Eagle, the recently fledged juvenile looking well fed, Goldhill Avenue, 22 June 2021 by Tan Gim Cheong

There were breeding records for five other resident raptors. Three nestlings of the Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus were noted by Lee Chin Pong on 3rd April at Dover Road. On 24th May, three Changeable Hawk-Eagles Nisaetuscirrhatus, an adult and two fresh juveniles, all pale morphs, were photographed at Tampines Avenue 12, where a pair has had a nest for a number of years. On 1st June, a fresh juvenile Grey-headed Fish Eagle Haliaeetus ichthyaetus that was apparently still dependent on its parents for food was photographed by Ash Foo at Little Guilin.The Crested Goshawks Accipiter trivirgatus at Sin Ming raised a second brood and two chicks were noted on 5th April, however one died on 15th April and the remaining chick was seen perching a few metres outside the nest on 23rd April. Another Crested Goshawk nest was discovered at Toa Payoh on 5th May, with an adult on the nest.

There were five nesting records for the White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster. The pair at Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve bred again this season and two chicks were out of the nest on 30 May. The pair at Fort Canning also bred again, re-using their old nest which held two chicks on 7th June. At Loyang Avenue, an active nest was reported on 25th April, and two fully grown chicks were recorded on 29th May. At Yishun Avenue 1, a nest with two chicks was seen on 26th April, and at West Coast Park, a chick was reported to have made its maiden flight on 23rd June.

BHO, 300621, HNP, TGC

Brown Hawk Owl, 2 recently fledged young with an adult (partially hidden on the right), Hindhede Nature Park, 30 June 2021, by Tan Gim Cheong

Nocturnal Raptors

There were breeding records for five species of nocturnal raptors. A fledgling Barred Eagle-Owl Bubo sumatranus was photographed at Rifle Range Link on 4th April, while two adults, presumably its parents, were seen the day prior at the same locality.

On 19th April, a family of Spotted Wood Owls Strix seloputo with two chicks was spotted at Pasir Ris Park, and one of the chicks was already out of its nest, which was fittingly a bird’s nest fern. The other chick was also out of the nest on 27th April. At Benjamin Shears bridge, a fully grown Eastern Barn Owl Tyto javanicachick was spotted on 27th April, with its parent.

In May, a fledgling Sunda Scops Owl Otus  lempiji was photographed at the Botanic Gardens, and the adults were seen bringing food to the young owl. On 26th June, a family of Brown Hawk Owl Ninox scutulata with two fledglings was discovered at Hindhede Nature Park.

On 10th June, the mixed Brown Fish Owl Ketupa zeylonensisandBuffy Fish Owl Ketupa ketupupair was spotted at Hindhede Quarry, together with their hybrid offspring. This family was first discovered in February 2021.

Many thanks to everyone for posting / sending in / sharing their records, and to Jared Tan & Art Toh for the use of their photos.

For a pdf version with more details, please click Singapore Raptor Report, Late Spring Migration, Apr-Jun 2021

Singapore Bird Report – June 2021

by Geoff Lim, Isabelle Lee
& Tan Gim Cheong (ed.)

Not one but five spectacular species were reported in a hitherto quiet month of June. Read on to find out more!

Black Magpie, 090621 1720h, Hindhede, Kenneth Chow on FBBS

Black Magpie by Kenneth Chow, 9 June 2021 at Hindhede Nature Park.

The first surprise find for June was a Black Magpie, Platysmurus leucopterus, on 9 June 2021 at Hindhede Quarry by Vinod Saranathan. Vinod reported that its “weird raucous call” gave it away when he saw it at 6:40pm that day. Another birder, Kenneth Chow, reported seeing the bird at 4:30pm, which he thought was a “strange crow with dirty wings” at the quarry area, and at 5:20pm when he thought it was a Greater Coucal.

Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler, posted 150621, Upper Seletar Res, Lawrence Cher, pic

Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler by Lawrence Cher, 15 June 2021 at Upper Seletar Reservoir Park.

While the community was reeling from the appearance of the Magpie, a hitherto unexpected find in the form of a Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler, Macronus ptilosus, was made on 15 June 2021 around 2pm at the Upper Seletar Reservoir Park by Lawrence Cher. Lawrence was at the park looking for butterflies to photograph that afternoon as June was relatively quiet in terms of interesting bird life, when he noticed several Pin-striped Tit-Babblers and Chestnut-winged Babbler calling in the background. The birds were popping in and out from view as they foraged, when one popped into the open. Lawrence managed to obtain one clear photo from the series taken; he had thought that it was a Chestnut-winged Babbler until post-processing revealed that it was a different babbler species.

Shearwater, 230621, BAMK, Art Toh, same

Wedge-tailed Shearwater by Art Toh, 23 June 2021 at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park.

The third report to take the community by storm was the appearance of a Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna pacifica, a seabird more likely to be encountered in the seas and oceans, than at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park, as reported by William Khaw on 23 June 2021. The bird was apparently found at one of the apartment blocks of the housing estate that morning, and brought to the park by an unknown person. Concerned parties alerted ACRES, who collected the bird that evening.  While the shearwater appeared to be far from any body of sea-water, these birds travel across long distances and may well have been in transit across our island when it possibly came into contact with one of our tall concrete structures. Unfortunately, the bird expired shortly after its rescue.

Green Broaodbill, 280621, Ubin, AOY

Green Broadbill at Pulau Ubin by Alan Owyong, 28 June 2021.

A Green Broadbill, Calyptomena viridis, was discovered on 27 June 2021 along Jalan Batu Ubin, Pulau Ubin, by Adrian Silas Tay and Jerold Tan. The bird continued to remain visible for the rest of that Sunday, and was seen for subsequent days. According to our records, the bird was last reported in 1941 as a resident and thought to have been extirpated ever since. So, where did this Green Broadbill, a former resident come from?  That was a question venerable birder, Alan Owyong, asked and an excerpt of his social media post is reproduced here:

It is always a difficult question to answer especially if the species is being sold in the pet shops in Singapore or a popular caged bird. On 27 November 2014, one was photographed at East Coast Park and another was photographed a month later on 25 December at Pulau Ubin. These were assigned to Category [D] but were reassigned to Cat A in 2020 and listed in the 2021 Checklist. [I was reminded of one heard at Nee Soon in 2002.]

The Green Broadbills can be nomadic and are known to wander afar in search of fruits. The continuous forest cover at Pulau Ubin must surely be a welcome sight for those birds that fly over from the forest of southern Johor.

This Green Broadbill should be the same bird spotted on 11 April 2021 along the same stretch of road. [On] 28 June, we noticed that the Green Broadbill flew to a MacArthur’s Palm by the roadside to feed on the young green palm fruits. Most broadbills are insectivorous. But the Green Broadbill is [mainly] frugivorous and feed on berries, figs and small fruits. This may be the reason why it stayed around the same area for the past three days.

Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR)

BEO, 050621, RRL, LKC

Barred Eagle Owl by Lim Kim Chuah, 5 June 2021, Rifle Range Link.

Within the core CCNR area, a Barred Eagle-Owl, Bubo sumatranus, was spotted on 5 June 2021, along Rifle Range Link (Lim Kim Chuah), while on the same day a single Black-headed Bulbul, Pycnonotus atriceps, was seen along the same track (Lau Jia Sheng). Visitors also spotted Malaysian Hawk-Cuckoo, Hierococcyx fugax, on 15 June 2021 (Max Khoo), and heard a Chestnut-winged Babbler, Stachyris erythroptera, on 19 June 2021 at Mandai Road Track 7 (Tan Kok Hui). From Jelutong Tower, two Blue-rumped Parrot, Psittinus cyanurus were spotted by Yap Bao Shen on 3 June 2021, as well as two Chestnut-bellied Malkoha, Phaenicophaeus sumatranus, (T. Ramesh), and a pair of Asian Red-eyed Bulbul, Pycnonotus brunneus, (Chan Mei Yee) on 20 June 2021.

Fringe parks abutting the CCNR yielded good forest species such as the Violet Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus, seen at Hindhede Nature Park on 10 June 2021 by Yip Jen Wei, a Red-crowned Barbet, Megalaima rafflesii, spotted on 20 June 2021 at MacRitchie Reservoir Park by Marcel Finlay. At Thomson Nature Park, a Short-tailed Babbler, Malcocincla malaccensis, was recorded by Fitri Adnan on 20 June 2021, and a family of White-rumped Shama, Copsychus malabaricus, with two fledglings were recorded by Khong Yew on 30 June 2021. A Blue-eared Kingfisher, Alcedo meninting, was spotted at Hindhede Nature Park on 21 June 2021 by Raghav Narayanswamy.

Central Singapore

CSE, 220621, Goldhill, TGC, juvenile

Juvenile Crested Serpent Eagle at Goldhill Avenue by Tan Gim Cheong, 22 June 2021.

There was much rejoicing over the sighting of a juvenile Crested Serpent Eagle, Spilornis cheela, together with adults at Goldhill Avenue. One sighting of the juvenile eagle was on 19 June 2021 by Matthew Teng. More reports of the confirmation of a successful nesting can be found in this link.

Central Singapore also yielded the afore-mentioned Wedge-tailed Shearwater, Ardenna pacifica, which was reported on 23 June 2021 at Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park by William Khaw, Art Toh and others. On 13 June 2021, Ash Foo found a pair of Striated Herons, Butorides striata, at their nest at the same park.

Northern Singapore

The Lorong Halus Wetland continued to support the Little Grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis, which was spotted on 15 June 2021 by Yip Jen Wei, who also saw an Asian Palm Swift, Cypsiurus balasiensis, at the same location. On 24 June, 2021, Yeong WaiKai found a male Common Iora, Aegithina tiphia, sitting on its nest.

Further afield, a Purple Heron, Ardea purpurea, was reportedly seen at Sengkang Riverside Park/ Sengkang Floating Wetland on 21 June 2021 by Vilis Lu. At Punggol Barat on 4 June 2021, Keith Hutton found a Large-tailed Nightjar, Caprimulgus macrurus, nest with two eggs.

Eastern Singapore

Mangrove Pitta, 280621, PRP, Danny Khoo

Mangrove Pitta at Pasir Ris Park by Danny Khoo, 28 June 2021.

Pasir Ris Park continued to support a diverse range of residents, including the single Mangrove Pitta, Pitta megarhyncha, spotted on 4 June 2021 by Danny Khoo, and on 9 June 2021 by Low Zhi Hao, a pair of adult and two juvenile Spotted Wood Owl, Strix seloputo, on 15 June 2021 by Mae Wong, as well as reports of a Green Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aenea, a Tanimbar Corella, Cacatua goffiniana, and an over-summering Crested Honey Buzzard, Pernis ptilorhynchus, on 22 June 2021 by Shuna Maekawa.

At the nearby Tampines Eco Green, a Rufous Woodpecker, Micropternus brachyurus, was reported on 22 June 2021 by Lim Kim Keang, who also reported the presence of two Asian Golden Weavers, Ploceus hypoxanthus.

Pulau Ubin continued to dazzle with reports of the Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon, Treron fulvicollis, spotted on 12 June 2021 by Lim Kim Chuah, a Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike, Hemipus hirundinaceus, on 21 June 2021, at the Chek Jawa Wetlands by Jeff Tan, and the spectacular Green Broadbill, Calyptomena viridis, on 27 June 2021 at Jalan Batu Ubin, discovered by Adrian Silas Tay and Jerold Tan.

On another northeastern island, Frankie Cheong found a small colony of 20-30 breeding  Little Terns, Sternula albifrons, with some 8-10 chicks hatching around mid-June; later on a single stilt was seen on 25 June 2021, and then he reported 4 stilts, which appeared to be an interesting mix of at least one Pied Stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus, (which was the fifth exceptional species for the month) and one Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus, on 28 June 2021.   

Southern Singapore

Over at Gardens by the Bay, two House Swift, Apus nipalensis, were reported on 6 June 2021 by Yip Jen Wei, while two species of raptor were reported on 20 June 2021 – a single Changeable Hawk-Eagle, Nisaetus cirrhatus, and a Crested Goshawk, Accipiter trivirgatus, by budding birder, Kaeden Sim, who also saw the Ruddy-breasted Crake, Porzana fusca.

On 20 June 2021, Abegale Queddeng witnessed a snake catching one of the Sunda Pygmy Woodpeckers, Yungipicus moluccensis, that tried to defend their nest, and on the next day Kelvin Ng found the remaining parent still attending to the nest. Kelvin also spotted a fledgling Olive-backed Sunbird, Cinnyris jugularis on the same day. Then on 23 June 2021, Jayden Woo found a Yellow-vented Bulbul’s, Pycnonotus goiavier, nest that held two chicks.

A stone’s throw away, albeit not too literally, a Malaysian Plover, Charadrius peronii, our resident plover, was reported on 12 June 2021 at Marina East by Low Zhi Hao. Across the waters, an Eastern Barn Owl, Tyto javanica, was reported on 22 June 2021 at Millenia Tower by Yip Jen Wei.

Visitors to Sentosa were serenaded by up to two Chinese Hwamei, Garrulax canorus, reported on 21 June 2021 by Norhafiani A Majid. Meanwhile, along the waters of the Southern Islands, a Great-billed Heron, Ardea sumatrana, a Pacific Reef Heron, Egretta sacra, and a Black-naped Tern, Sterna sumatrana, were seen the day before, 20 June 2021, by Raghav Narayanswamy.

Western Singapore

Sungei Buloh Weland Reserve was visited by, not one but eight spectacular Lesser Adjutant, Leptoptilos javanicus, on 14 June 2021 (Ester Gerber), while a pair of Copper-throated Sunbird, Leptocoma calcostetha, were reported on 21 June 2021 (Kieran Kwek). On 12 June 2021, Lee Chin Pong found a Common Tailorbird, Orthotomus sutorius attending to two chicks in a nest. At the nearby Kranji Marsh, a male Pied Triller, Lalage nigra, was seen feeding a chick in its nest on 13 June 2021, by Philip Ng.

Over at the popular Jurong Lake Gardens, a cryptic Barred Buttonquail, Turnix suscitator, was seen on 8 June 2021 (Jared Tan), while the regular Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus ichthyaetus, was seen on 21 June 2021 along the Ulu Pandan Park Connector (Norhafiani A Majid), where a pair of Golden-bellied Gerygones, Gerygone sulphurea, were observed to have mated on 17 Jun 2021 (Richard Lee), and on 20 June 2021, David Chan photographed a Golden-bellied Gerygone feeding a Little Bronze Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx minutillus, that had already left the nest.

Other species noted in the west included a Watercock, Gallicrex cinerea, on 6 June 2021, along Jalan Murai, (Marcel Finlay), a Large-billed Crow, Corvus macrorhynchos, on 20 June 2021 at Greenleaf View (Lynn Tan), as well as two Long-tailed Parakeet, Psittacula longicauda, and three Baya Weaver, Ploceus philippinus, both on 22 June 2021 along Holland Plain (Lynn Tan).

This report is compiled/written by Geoff Lim and Isabelle Lee, and edited by Tan Gim Cheong. We are grateful for the birders and photographers whose postings in various Facebook birding pages, bird forums, individual reports and extracts from eBird make up this report. This compilation is not a complete list of birds recorded for the month and not all the records were verified. Rarities would be assessed by the Records Committee.

Many thanks to Kenneth Chow, Lawrence Cher, Art Toh, Alan Owyong, Lim Kim Chuah, and Danny Khoo for allowing us to use their photographs.